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Female Infertility

IVF - In Vitro Fertilisation

In vitro fertilization can be a perfect solution for couples for whom the less aggressive treatments like IUI and Ovarian Stimulation are not successful.

IVF treatment can help make your dream of parenthood come true by treating the causes of both male and female infertility.

IUI - Intrauterine Insemination

Intrauterine insemination can offer a solution for unexplained infertility, cervical problems in the female, immunological factors, ejaculation disorders, endometriosis, and cases of slightly decreased male fertility.

ICSI: Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection

ICSI technique involves the use of specialized micromanipulation tools and equipment, that allows embryologists to identify the normal-appearing, active sperm with good shape. The selected sperm is then injected into the cytoplasm of the egg. It is used in more than half of all IVF treatments and offers the most successful type of treatment for men who are having low sperm count, motility, or morphology.

IVF with Donor Egg

IVF with donor eggs is the treatment of choice in cases where the female partner is unable to produce healthy eggs for fertilisation with their partner’s sperm, or in cases where a female’s eggs could carry a genetic problem. In this condition, the eggs used for IVF process are provided by an anonymous egg donor.


Surrogacy is a type of arrangement wherein an agreement is made between the intended parents and a woman who will be the gestational carrier. The woman herein is called a surrogate.

Infertility is a growing concern worldwide, affecting millions of couples. While both men and women can experience infertility, it is estimated that female infertility is responsible for 40-50% of infertility cases. The causes of female infertility are complex and can range from hormonal imbalances, and structural issues in the reproductive system, to lifestyle factors. In recent years, there has been an increase in the prevalence of infertility due to factors such as delayed childbearing, increased stress levels, and environmental factors. This has resulted in a higher demand for infertility treatments, such as assisted reproductive technologies, which have improved significantly over the past decade. Despite this progress, many women still face challenges in their journey to motherhood, making infertility a major public health issue that needs to be addressed.

However, the current technological advancements in the field of infertility have made it possible for many couples to fulfill their dream of parenthood. By deep diving into the topic of female infertility, we can understand its causes, symptoms, and available treatments. This knowledge can empower women to take control of their reproductive health and increase their chances of starting a family.

Let’s understand female infertility in detail, with its underlying causes and symptoms along with robust treatment options.

What is Female Infertility?

Female infertility is the inability of a woman to become pregnant or carry it to term. It is a complex issue that various factors such as hormonal imbalances, structural problems with the reproductive system, or lifestyle factors can cause. Infertility affects millions of women worldwide, and its prevalence has increased in recent years due to factors such as delayed childbearing, increased stress levels, and environmental factors.

The female reproductive system is a delicate and complex system that requires the proper functioning of multiple components, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and cervix. Hormonal imbalances, such as thyroid disorders, can impact ovulation and lead to infertility. Structural problems, such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease, can block or damage the fallopian tubes, making it difficult for the sperm to reach the egg. Other factors, such as lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and a sedentary lifestyle, can also impact a woman's fertility.

Early diagnosis and proper treatment of infertility are important for increasing a woman's chances of starting a family.

What are the Causes of Female Infertility?

A range of factors, including hormonal imbalances, structural problems with the reproductive system, and lifestyle factors can be the female infertility cause. Some common causes of female infertility include:

  1. Ovulation Disorders: Ovulation is the process by which a woman’s ovaries release an egg each month. Ovulation disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), can prevent the release of an egg or cause irregular ovulation, making it difficult to conceive.
  2. Uterine or Cervical Abnormalities: Structural problems with the uterus or cervix, such as uterine fibroids, adhesions, or cervical stenosis, can prevent the implantation of a fertilized egg or block the passage of sperm to the egg.
  3. Fallopian Tube Problems: Fallopian tube blockage or damage, caused by pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis, can prevent the egg from reaching the uterus and increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
  4. Endocrine Disorders: Hormonal imbalances, such as thyroid disorders or adrenal gland problems, can impact ovulation and lead to infertility.
  5. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, alcohol consumption, a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity can all contribute to infertility. Additionally, exposure to environmental toxins, such as pesticides and heavy metals, can also be the female infertility causes.
  6. Age: Female fertility declines with age and women over the age of 35 are at increased risk for infertility.
  7. Unexplained Infertility: In some cases, the cause of female infertility is unknown. However, even in these cases, treatment options may still be available.

What are the Types of Infertility in Females?

Female infertility can be classified into two main categories: primary infertility and secondary infertility.

  1. Primary Infertility: Primary infertility refers to the inability of a woman who has never been pregnant to conceive, even after one year of unprotected sex. This can be due to a range of factors, including ovulation disorders, fallopian tube problems, uterine or cervical abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, and lifestyle factors.
  2. Secondary Infertility: Secondary infertility refers to the inability of a woman who has been pregnant before to conceive again. This can be due to a range of factors, including age, endocrine disorders, pelvic inflammatory disease, and lifestyle factors.

Infertility can also be classified based on the specific cause of female infertility, such as:

  1. Ovulatory Infertility: Ovulatory infertility occurs when a woman is unable to ovulate regularly, or at all. This can be due to hormonal imbalances, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or due to age-related hormonal changes.
  2. Tubal Infertility: Tubal infertility occurs when the fallopian tubes are damaged or blocked, preventing the egg from reaching the uterus. This can be due to pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or a history of ectopic pregnancy.
  3. Uterine Infertility: Uterine infertility occurs when structural problems with the uterus, such as uterine fibroids or adhesions, prevent the implantation of a fertilized egg.
  4. Cervical Infertility: Cervical infertility occurs when the cervix is blocked or narrowed, preventing the sperm from reaching the egg.
  5. Endocrine Infertility: Endocrine infertility occurs when hormonal imbalances, such as thyroid disorders or adrenal gland problems, impact ovulation and lead to infertility.
  6. Unexplained Infertility: Unexplained infertility refers to the inability to conceive, even after a complete infertility evaluation, with no obvious cause.

What are the Female Infertility Symptoms?

In many cases, female infertility symptoms may not have any noticeable. However, some common signs and symptoms of female infertility include:

  1. Irregular or Absent Menstrual Cycles: Irregular menstrual cycles or the absence of periods can indicate hormonal imbalances or ovulation disorders, which can impact fertility.
  2. Painful or Heavy Menstrual Cycles: Painful or heavy menstrual cycles can be a sign of endometriosis, which is a common cause of female infertility.
  3. Pelvic Pain: Pelvic pain, especially during intercourse, can be a sign of endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease, both of which can are female infertility symptoms.
  4. Abnormal Vaginal Discharge: Abnormal vaginal discharge can indicate an infection, which can impact fertility.
  5. Difficulty Conceiving: If you have been trying to conceive for more than one year without success, it may be time to seek a medical evaluation for infertility.
  6. Recurrent Miscarriage: If you have experienced two or more consecutive miscarriages, it may indicate a problem with the reproductive system, such as uterine or cervical abnormalities.

Never ignore your symptoms and seek immediate medical attention to avoid any medical complications.

What are Some of the Female Infertility Treatment Options?

Advanced technology and art have greatly impacted female infertility treatment. With the use of advanced diagnostic tools such as ultrasound, laparoscopy, and hysterosalpingography, medical professionals can identify the underlying causes of infertility and design a customized treatment plan. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have revolutionized the way infertility is treated and have helped many couples achieve their dreams of starting a family. Additionally, advancements in genetic testing have allowed for earlier identification of genetic disorders, increasing the chances of successful pregnancies. Art has also played a role in female infertility treatment by providing emotional support and comfort to patients undergoing these procedures through various forms of therapy, such as counseling, support groups, and guided imagery. The combination of advanced technology and art has significantly improved the chances of success for women facing infertility and has allowed for a more holistic approach to their treatment.

The underlying reason for female infertility affects how the condition is treated. These common remedies for female infertility are listed below.

  1. In vitro Fertilization (IVF) IVF Treatment is a process in which eggs are removed from the ovaries and fertilized with sperm in a laboratory. The fertilised eggs are then implanted into the uterus.
  2. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) IUI Treatment is a procedure in which sperm is directly inserted into the uterus, increasing the chances of fertilization. This can be done with or without the use of medications to stimulate ovulation.
  3. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) ICSI Treatment is a variation of IVF in which a single sperm is injected directly into the egg. This is typically used for men with low sperm counts or poor sperm motility.
  4. IVF with Donor Egg IVF with a donor egg involves the use of eggs from a donor, instead of the woman's eggs. This is often used for women who have experienced menopause, have ovary damage, or have genetic conditions.
  5. Surrogacy Surrogacy involves carrying a pregnancy for another individual or couple. This can be done with either the surrogate's eggs or with donor eggs, and with either the surrogate's sperm or donor sperm.
  6. Medications Medications can be used to regulate menstrual cycles, promote ovulation, or improve hormonal imbalances. Some examples include clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins, and metformin.

It is important to consult a fertility specialist to determine the best course of treatment for your specific case of infertility. A specialist can also discuss the potential risks, benefits, and success rates of each treatment option. In some cases, multiple treatments may be necessary to achieve a successful pregnancy.

Couples who are facing infertility have the opportunity to achieve their goal of starting a family with the help of advanced medical treatments and technology. It is crucial to work with a specialist who can assess your situation and determine the best course of action.

Why is Medicover Fertility the Ideal Choice?

Medicover Fertility offers a complete solution for infertility issues and is dedicated to helping couples achieve their dream of having a child. Our team of specialists uses state-of-the-art facilities and advanced medical treatments to provide comprehensive evaluations and personalized treatment plans. With a high success rate and a focus on providing top-notch patient care, Medicover Fertility is the optimal choice for couples dealing with infertility.


Infertility can be a difficult and emotional journey for couples, but with the assistance of a specialist and advanced medical treatments, many can overcome this challenge and fulfil their dream of starting a family. If you or your partner is struggling with infertility, do not hesitate to seek the expertise of a reproductive specialist. With Medicover Fertility, you can expect exceptional care and a high chance of success in overcoming infertility.

ICSI Treatment Process

STEP 1 : Fertility Consultation

The fertility consultation at Medicover includes a discussion with the fertility specialist, followed by a thorough medical examination. An embryologist will explain them the options available to address issues related to sperm.

STEP 2 : Stimulation

The female partner needs to visit on day two or three of her menstrual cycle, when hormonal investigations are done along with an ultrasound. The ovaries are stimulated with medication to promote the growth of follicles containing the eggs; this process can last for eight to 12 days. The response of the ovaries (quantity and quality of follicles recruited) is monitored through ultrasounds and blood investigations at regular intervals.

STEP 3 : Egg Collection

After eight to 12 days of taking the medicine, an injection (trigger) is administered to assist with the final maturation of the egg and loosening of the egg from the follicular wall. The patient must visit the clinic for the egg retrieval process, which will be performed 34-36 hours after the trigger administration. Egg retrieval is performed with ultrasound guidance under mild sedation to make it painless.

STEP 4 : Sperm Collection

On the day of egg collection, the male partner provides a fresh semen sample, which is analysed and processed by an embryologist in the ART lab. In this procedure, sperm processing (post ejaculation) is different. If required, sperm can be extracted from a testicle or epididymis in a separate procedure.

STEP 5 : Embryo Transfer

After evaluation in the laboratory, the finest embryos are selected for transfer and depending upon their quality a preferable day is decided for embryo transfer.

STEP 6 : After Transfer

Supportive medicines are prescribed after the embryo transfer that help the embryo to implant in the uterus. After the stipulated period, pregnancy tests are conducted to confirm pregnancy.

What is ICSI Treatment?

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection or ICSI Treatment is a procedure where a single sperm is picked up with a fine glass needle and injected directly into the cytoplasm of the egg to assist fertilisation.

Who might be recommended to have ICSI Treatment?

The doctor may recommend ICSI Treatment process for a couple:

  • In cases of low sperm count.
  • In cases of sperms with poor morphology or motility.
  • Where the couple had already undergone IVF Treatment, with very few or no eggs fertilised.
  • When using frozen sperm in the treatment which isn’t of the highest quality.
  • When having an embryo testing for a genetic condition, the sperm sticks to the outside of the eggs.