Eggs or ova are microscopic. This is why they are checked only after extraction. In order to decipher whether the eggs extracted are of good quality or not, the following steps are taken: The eggs are extracted. They are judged on the basis of their physical appearance. If they do not appear sound, they are discarded. Those that are approved as per their physicality are sent forward for further processing. The eggs are subjected to a culture medium with the sperms of the father or donor sperms. The eggs that fertilize are used for embryo transfer while the eggs that did not fertilize are discarded.
There is no method by which it can be found whether an egg would fertilize or not. The only way to do that is by letting them fertilize only.
The peculiar thing with an ovum is that a woman might be producing a low amount of eggs or may have an inadequate reserve of ovum in her ovaries, however; she might be producing good quality of eggs. Similarly, a woman with a good reserve of eggs may not produce healthy or good quality eggs.
The only way by which the quality and competency of a woman’s eggs can be determined is by mapping her AMH levels. These levels are the actual measures of deciphering the condition of the fertility of a woman.